Acne


Definition

Acne is a skin condition that causes pimples or "zits." Whiteheads, blackheads, and red, inflamed patches of skin (such as cysts) may develop.

Alternative Names

Acne vulgaris; Cystic acne; Pimples; Zits

Causes

This EM Should be displayed at the top of the article section "Causes"

Acne occurs when tiny holes on the surface of the skin become clogged. These holes are called pores.

Acne is most common in teenagers, but anyone can get acne, even babies. The problem tends to run in families.

Some things that may trigger acne include:

Research does not show that chocolate, nuts, and greasy foods cause acne. However, diets high in refined sugars or dairy products may be related to acne in some people.

Symptoms

Acne commonly appears on the face and shoulders. It may also occur on the trunk, arms, legs, and buttocks. Skin changes include:

Exams and Tests

Your health care provider can diagnose acne by looking at your skin. Testing is not needed in most cases. Bacterial culture may be performed to rule out infection if large pus bumps persist.

Treatment

SELF-CARE

Steps you can take to help your acne:

What NOT to do:

If these steps do not clear up the blemishes, try over-the-counter acne medicines that you apply to your skin.

A small amount of sun exposure may improve acne slightly, but tanning mostly hides the acne. Too much exposure to sunlight or ultraviolet rays is not recommended because it increases the risk for skin cancer.

MEDICINES FROM YOUR HEALTH CARE PROVIDER

If pimples are still a problem, a provider can prescribe stronger medicines and discuss other options with you.

Antibiotics may help some people with acne:

Creams or gels applied to the skin may be prescribed:

For women whose acne is caused or made worse by hormones:

Minor procedures or treatments may also be helpful:

People who have cystic acne and scarring may try a medicine called isotretinoin (Accutane). You will be watched closely when taking this medicine because of its side effects.

Pregnant women should NOT take Accutane, because it causes severe birth defects.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Most of the time, acne goes away after the teenage years, but it may last into middle age. The condition often responds well to treatment after 6 to 8 weeks, but may flare up from time to time.

Scarring may occur if severe acne is not treated. Some people become very depressed if acne is not treated.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your provider if:

If your baby has acne, call the baby's provider if acne does not clear up on its own within 3 months.

References

Habif TP. Acne, roacea, and related distorders. In: Habif TP, ed. Clinical Dermatology. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 7.

Zaenglein AL, Thiboutot DM. Acne vulgaris. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, et al, eds. Dermatology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:chap 36.

A.D.A.M. content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.