Heart disease and diet

Definition

A healthy diet is a major factor in reducing your risk of heart disease.

Alternative Names

Diet - heart disease; CAD - diet; Coronary artery disease - diet; Coronary heart disease - diet

Function

A healthy diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of:

Recommendations

FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

Most fruits and vegetables are part of a heart-healthy diet. They are good sources of fiber, vitamins, and minerals. Most are low in fat, calories, sodium, and cholesterol.

Eat 5 or more servings of fruits and vegetables per day.

Get more fiber by eating whole fruits instead of drinking juice.

GRAINS

Eat breads, cereals, crackers, rice, pasta, and starchy vegetables (such as peas, potatoes, corn, winter squash, and lima beans). These foods are high in the B vitamins, iron, and fiber. They are also low in fat and cholesterol.

Choose whole grain foods (such as bread, cereal, crackers, and pasta) for at least half of your daily grain intake. Grain products provide fiber, vitamins, minerals, and complex carbohydrates. Eating too many grains, especially refined gain foods (such as white bread, pasta, and baked goods) can cause weight gain.

Avoid high-fat baked goods such as butter rolls, cheese crackers, and croissants and cream sauces for pasta.

EATING HEALTHY PROTEIN

Meat, poultry, seafood, dried peas, lentils, nuts, and eggs are good sources of protein, B vitamins, iron, and other vitamins and minerals.

You should:

Milk and other dairy products are good sources of protein, calcium, the B vitamins niacin and riboflavin, and vitamins A and D. Use skim or 1% milk. Cheese, yogurt, and buttermilk should be low-fat or non-fat.

FATS, OILS, AND CHOLESTEROL

Some types of fat are healthier than others. A diet high in saturated and trans fats causes cholesterol to build up in your arteries (blood vessels). This puts you at risk for heart attack, stroke, and other major health problems. Avoid or limit foods that are high in these fats. Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats that come from vegetable sources have many health benefits.

You should:

Think about the following when choosing a margarine:

Trans fatty acids are unhealthy fats that form when vegetable oil undergoes hydrogenation.

OTHER TIPS TO KEEP YOUR HEART HEALTHY

You may find it helpful to talk to a dietitian about your eating choices. The American Heart Association is a good source of information on diet and heart disease. Balance the number of calories you eat with the number you use each day to maintain a healthy body weight. You can ask your doctor or dietitian to help you figure out a good number of calories for you.

Limit your intake of foods high in calories or low in nutrition, including foods like soft drinks and candy that contain a lot of sugar.

Eat less than 2300 mg of sodium per day (about 1 teaspoon, or 5 mg, of salt per day). Cut down on salt by reducing the amount of salt you add to food when eating. Also limit prepared foods that have salt added to them, such as canned soups and vegetables, cured meats, and some frozen meals. Always check the nutrition label for the sodium content per serving. Eat season foods with lemon juice or fresh herbs or spices instead.

Foods with more than 300 mg of sodium per serving may not fit into a reduced sodium diet.

Exercise regularly. For example, walk for at least 30 minutes a day, in blocks of 10 minutes or longer.

Limit the amount of alcohol you drink. Women should have no more than 1 alcoholic drink per day. Men should not have more than 2 alcoholic drinks each day.

References

Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard JD, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J am Coll Cardiol. 2014;63(25 Pt B):2960-2984. PMID: 24239922 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24239922.

Heimburger DC. Nutrition's interface with health and disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 213.

Mosca L, Benjamin EJ, Berra K, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention in women -- 2011 update: a guideline from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011;123(11):1243-1262. PMID: 21325087 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21325087.

Mozaffarian D. Nutrition and cardiovascular and metabolic disease. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 46.

US Food and Drug Administration. At a Glance: Highlights of the Final Nutrition Facts Label. Updated December 21, 2016. www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation/labelingnutrition/ucm502305.pdf. Accessed April 3, 2017.



Review Date: 4/25/2015
Reviewed By: Emily Wax, RD, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY. Internal review and update on 09/01/2016 by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Editorial update 04/03/2017.
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