Lactose tolerance tests measure the ability of your intestines to break down a type of sugar found in milk and other dairy products called lactose. If your body cannot break down this sugar you are said to have lactose intolerance.
Hydrogen breath test for lactose tolerance
Two common methods include:
The hydrogen breath test is the preferred method. It measures the amount of hydrogen in the air you breathe out.
The lactose tolerance blood test looks for glucose in your blood. Your body creates glucose when lactose breaks down.
You should not eat or do heavy exercise for 8 hours before the test.
There should not be any pain or discomfort when giving a breath sample.
When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight pain, while others feel only a prick or stinging feeling. Afterward, there may be some throbbing.
Your health care provider may order these tests if you have signs of lactose intolerance.
The breath test is considered normal if the increase in hydrogen is less than 12 parts per million over your fasting (pre-test) level.
The blood test is considered normal if your glucose level rises more than 30 mg/dL (1.6 mmol/L) within 2 hours of drinking the lactose solution. A rise of 20 to 30 mg/dL (1.1 to 1.6 mmol/L) is inconclusive.
Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.
The examples above show the common measurements for results for these tests. Some labs use different measurements or may test different samples.
Abnormal results may be a sign of lactose intolerance.
A breath test result that shows a rise in hydrogen content of 12 parts per million (ppm) over your pre-test level is considered positive, and means you may have trouble breaking down lactose.
The blood test is considered abnormal if your glucose level rises less than 20 mg/dL (1.1 mmol/L) within 2 hours of drinking the lactose solution.
An abnormal test should be followed by a glucose tolerance test to rule out a problem with the body's ability to absorb glucose.
There may be slight risks from having blood drawn.
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Semrad CE. Approach to the patient with diarrhea and malabsorption. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 140.