Sigmoidoscopy

Definition

Sigmoidoscopy is a procedure used to see inside the sigmoid colon and rectum. The sigmoid colon is the area of the large intestine nearest to the rectum.

Alternative Names

Flexible sigmoidoscopy; Sigmoidoscopy - flexible; Proctoscopy; Proctosigmoidoscopy; Rigid sigmoidoscopy; Colon cancer sigmoidoscopy; Colorectal sigmoidoscopy; Rectal sigmoidoscopy; Gastrointestinal bleeding - sigmoidoscopy; Rectal bleeding - sigmoidoscopy; Melena - sigmoidoscopy; Blood in stool - sigmoidoscopy; Polyps - sigmoidoscopy

How the Test is Performed

During the test:

Sigmoidoscopy using a rigid scope may be done to treat problems of the anus or rectum.

How to Prepare for the Test

Your health care provider will tell you how to prepare for the exam. You will use an enema to empty your bowels. This is usually done 1 hour before the sigmoidoscopy.

On the morning of the procedure, eat a light breakfast.

How the Test will Feel

During the exam you may feel:

After the test, your body will pass the air that was put into your colon.

Children may be given medicine to make them sleep lightly (sedated) for this procedure.

Why the Test is Performed

Your doctor may recommend this test to look for the cause of:

This test can also be used to:

Normal Results

A normal test result will show no problems with the color, texture, and size of the lining of the sigmoid colon, rectal mucosa, rectum, and anus.

What Abnormal Results Mean

Abnormal results can indicate:

Risks

There is a slight risk of bowel perforation (tearing a hole) and bleeding at the biopsy sites. The overall risk is very small.

References

Lieberman DA, Rex DK, Winawer SJ, et al. Guidelines for colonoscopy surveillance after screening and polypectomy: a consensus update by the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer. Gastroenterology. 2012;143(3):844-857. PMID: 227613141 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22763141.

Pasricha PJ. Gastrointestinal endoscopy. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 134.

US Preventive Services Task Force, Bibbins-Domingo K, Grossman DC, et al. Screening for colorectal cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. JAMA. 2016;315(23):2564-2575. PMID: 27304597 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27304597.

Vargo JJ. Preparation for and complications of GI endoscopy. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/Management. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 41.



Review Date: 8/1/2015
Reviewed By: Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Internal review and update on 09/01/2016 by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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